The discussion in comments regarding Bob Dylan's "Rollin' and Tumblin'" led me to think about which pop records have borrowed motifs, chord changes or even entire songs from what has gone before. Here's a list of examples -- leaving out those that have inspired litigation or instances like Elvis Costello's "When I Was Cruel," which borrows a line from Abba's "Dancing Queen" in a clear homage -- that you the reader may feel free to add to:
* The White Stripes' "Fell in Love With a Girl" steals its central riff from the Pretenders' "Middle of the Road"
* Pavement's "Silence Kid" takes its melody from Buddy Holly's "Every Day"
* The chorus of Elton John's "I Don't Want to Go On With You Like That" steals from the chorus of "Love Potion No. 9"
* Shakira's "Underneath Your Clothes" is pretty much the same song as the Bangles' "Eternal Flame"
* The organ line in Bruce Springsteen's "Factory" is the same as the melody of "I Don't Know How to Love Him" from Jesus Christ Superstar
* The opening of Prodigy's "Firestarter" is exactly the same as the opening to the Stooges' "I Wanna Be Your Dog"